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Everything you need to know about Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Everything you need to know about Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are incredibly important for our health due to their numerous effects on our bodies. These fatty acids are a key component of cell membranes and play a role in membrane receptor function. Their presence in the diet has several positive effects.

The Importance of Fats in the Diet

Fats were considered "the enemy" of human health not too long ago, but there have been many new findings in the field of nutrition and health. Researchers suggest that the Mediterranean diet, which includes the consumption of a large amount of fish and multiple unsaturated fats like olive oil, may positively contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. These discoveries have changed our perspective on the role of fats in our diet.

Fats in the diet serve as a significant source of energy, carriers of fat-soluble vitamins, and contributors to taste and aroma. The most important components of dietary fats are fatty acids, which are categorized into:

  1. Saturated
  2. Monounsaturated
  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acids

The impact of fats on our health depends on the type and quantity of fatty acids we consume. Out of the recommended 30% of daily energy intake from fats, it is advised that no more than 10% should come from saturated fatty acids, with the remainder attributed to unsaturated fatty acids.

It's important to understand that problematic fats in terms of frequent and excessive consumption are primarily saturated fats, such as pork fat and butter, which are typical in traditional Slovenian diets, as well as trans-unsaturated fatty acids, a product of modern technology. Both forms of fats are harmful to human health and should be limited in the diet.

What Are Omega-3 Fatty Acids?

Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids represent a crucial group of fats that play a key role in our bodies. Chemically, fatty acids consist of a carboxyl group and long hydrocarbon chains. While both types of fatty acids include these basic building blocks, they differ in their structure and impact on our health.

Omega-3 fatty acids are those in which the first unsaturated bond is located at the 3rd carbon atom in the hydrocarbon chain. These fatty acids are known for their numerous health benefits, including reducing inflammation, improving heart and brain function, and supporting overall body health.

Therefore, it's important to be aware of the difference between these two types of fatty acids and to include foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids in your diet, such as fish, nuts, and flaxseeds, while also balancing the intake of omega-6 fatty acids from sources like vegetable oils. This will support your overall health and well-being.

Why Are Omega-3 Fatty Acids Special?

Omega-3 fatty acids are exceptionally important for our health due to their many effects on our bodies. These fatty acids are a key component of cell membranes and play a role in membrane receptor function. Their presence in our diet has several positive effects:

  1. Lowering saturated fat levels in the blood: Omega-3 fatty acids help reduce levels of saturated fats in the blood, contributing to a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Inhibiting the formation of atherosclerotic plaques: These fatty acids have an inhibitory effect on the formation of atherosclerotic plaques on blood vessel walls, improving blood flow.

  3. Lowering blood pressure: Omega-3 fatty acids can mildly lower elevated blood pressure, which is beneficial for heart health.

  4. Anti-inflammatory properties: They possess anti-inflammatory properties, helping prevent inflammation and associated blood vessel damage.

  5. Impact on genetic functions: Omega-3 fatty acids are linked to receptors in cells that regulate genetic functions, which can help control inflammatory diseases such as lupus, eczema, and rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Protection against Alzheimer's disease: DHA, one of the omega-3 fatty acids, is present in neural cell membranes and affects the nervous system, reducing the risk of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Importance during pregnancy: Omega-3 fatty acids are crucial for the proper development of the fetus, especially for the brain and retina. Deficiency in pregnant women can lead to various issues in the child, including reduced problem-solving abilities, poorer coordination, and a higher risk of allergies.

  8. Heart and vascular protection: Omega-3 fatty acids are particularly known for their positive impact on heart and vascular health, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Numerous studies have confirmed this beneficial connection in both heart disease patients and healthy individuals.

Due to these numerous health benefits, omega-3 fatty acids are considered a key part of a healthy diet, contributing to improved well-being and long-term health.

Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Food

Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for our health but can be found in various sources. The most well-known omega-3 fatty acids are:

  • Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

These fatty acids are present in animal sources such as salmon, tuna, sardines, and fish oils.

Additionally, our need for omega-3 fatty acids can be met through the consumption of plant sources, primarily alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). ALA can be found in flaxseeds, walnuts, sunflower seeds, plant oils, and other plant-based foods. However, it's important to note that ALA doesn't have the same health effects as EPA and DHA and is less effective.

It's also important to know that ALA can be converted into EPA and DHA in our bodies, but this conversion is not very efficient. Studies have shown that only a small percentage of ALA is converted into EPA and DHA, making it difficult to meet our needs for these fatty acids solely from plant sources.

Omega 3

The best sources of EPA and DHA are fatty fish, so it's advisable to consume fresh fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids regularly. However, we understand that many people don't eat fish often enough. In such cases, dietary supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids can be sought to ensure optimal intake of these beneficial substances.


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